Skip to content

Corporate Strategy as an Art (III): From Nomads to Neolithic Settlements.

Let´s shot an attention sailing journey over the Neolithic period. Generally, the archeologists have provided their interpretations of discovered objects about how life occurred in the past.  During this human development phase, there are plenty of remnants in every single continent of the Earth. The Neolithic period commenced around the year 11,000 – 10,000 B.C.E and it finished by the year 3000 to 2000 B.C.E. The Neolithic phase is also known as the New Stone Age.

trephination_in_neolithic_times

How a Neolithic village could have been. Image Source: Study.com

Several sources affirm that the Neolithic Age was a shift juncture from the nomad paleolithic lifestyle to the first settlements. It signified a progression in our human evolution in different areas. Humans began to define their subsistence by the cultivation of wild and domestic crops and by the practice of domesticated animals. The presence of a source of drinking water (rivers or lakes) was pivotal to Neolithic villages. By settling in lands near water, the societies changed their economic subsistence systems. The Neolithic period indicates a transition from a food-hunting-collecting economy to a food-producing economy.

The cultivation of cereal grains enabled Neolithic folks to build permanent dwellings and congregate all together in villages. As they released their nomadism, their new established incipient economies provided them a new unburden time to pursue the making of specialized crafts and tools.

The “Neolithicals” made “more-useful stone tools by grinding and polishing relatively hard rocks rather than merely chipping softer ones down to the desired shape”. Moreover, they developed other skills like weaving and building houses with stone bricks.

temple.jpg

The Ġgantija temples are older than the pyramids of Egypt and have been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

The Neolithic period is the time where humans created the concept of worship to divinity. Archeological ruins suggest the existence of human-made temples or sacred places for worship, sacrifices, tombs, funerary statues, and other religious objects. In addition, the communities had architectural decorations carved on stones.  Art statues with reliefs of animals and large/scale human figures are common. Finally, they learned to do pottery by using the clay (terracotta) to manufacture it.

skulls with plaster and shell israel

Skulls with plaster and shell from the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B, 6,000-7,000 B.C.E., found at the Yiftah’el archaeological site in the Lower Galilee, Israel. Source: brewminate.com

Guess what their corporate strategic decision-making priority was? To find the best places to congregate and protect theirs in villages. As mentioned previously, they settled near water sources. They explored the best plants to become farmers of cereal grains as barley and wheat and kept domestic livestock to eat (sheep, goats initially, and later on cattle and pigs). Vestiges from this new model economy are found in Asia at the Fertile Crescent area, in the Tigris and Euphrates River Valleys and around what it is now Syria, Israel, Lebanon, and Jordan. Their innovative new life model spread through the Middle East, Europe, Africa, etc. Furthermore, farming communities based on millet and rice appeared in India (Indus River Valley), China and Southeast Asia (Around the yellow river or Huang He valley).  In the new World (México, Central and South America) the Neolithic period started afterward (at about 2000 BCE). Vestiges of cereal grains here confirm their food subsistence-based in corn (maize), beans and other roots like potatoes.

What was art for the Neolithic human settlements?

bowl China Neolithic

Neolithic period, Majiayao culture (ca. 3300–2050 B.C.). China. Source: Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Neolithic artists were different than Paleolithic ancestors because their social and cultural mental frames were developed for a different type of lifecycle-style. The Neolithic society was not transportable, they were settled to stay and to procure their own living basic resources. They developed talents in pottery. They learned to model and made baked clay statues. Goddess, divinity figures and animals are the remnants discovered by archaeologists. These objects are samples of their artistic capabilities. The Neolithic humans also painted. They were the first to apply pigment to man-made surfaces. Paintings adorned the remains of the walls. Many scenes painted have given us information about their life and rituals to honor deities. In addition, the content of the paintings shows more in comparison to the paleolithic predecessors.

early-village

People from the Neolithic Age had better conditions of life than many living in extreme poverty nowadays. Image Source: https://howellworldhistory.wordpress.com/

The corporate strategy followed by the Neolithic families was pivotal to settle down. It was a shift from the itinerant nomadism of the paleolithic forerunners, to an establishment to stay, to relax, to reconcile and to slow down.

Sometimes, when I see how our low-income current societies have so much poverty and the high-income countries are emigrating to the movable “air” nomad era, I wonder if the prevailing corporate strategy is returning us back to the times prior to the Neolithic age. I have seen extreme poor citizens living in worst conditions than our “Neolithical” ancestors. What do you think?

Stay tuned, more to continue. On our next blog publication, we will splash into the Bronze age.

Thank you.bee

Source References used to write this article:

https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/search/?search-term=neolithic+art

https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/preh/hd_preh.htm

https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/chronology/

https://www.britannica.com/technology/history-of-technology#ref367855

http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Neolithic_Age

https://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1041340/Revealed-Britains-secret-treasure-trove-stone-age-rock-art.html

https://study.com/academy/lesson/art-in-the-neolithic-era-innovations-characteristics-examples.html

https://howellworldhistory.wordpress.com/the-neolithic-revolution/

Disclaimer: All the presentation slides shown on this blog are prepared by Eleonora Escalante MBA-MEng. Nevertheless, all the pictures or videos shown on this blog are not mine.  I do not own any of the lovely photos or images posted unless otherwise stated.

 

Leave a Reply

Please log in using one of these methods to post your comment:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s