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Corporate Strategy as an Art (XVI): Ooops! North American Archaic Cultures began to work copper before the Old World. (The Americas Part B)

Have a beautiful Sunday. As many of you already know me, I always address the importance of slowing down to gather “good data”. I always preach about “slowing down” when it comes to analysis, inference, and making conclusions. In addition, I always speak about finding balance. Why? Because if we slow down, we are able to think better and see the whole picture, without missing important or relevant information. If we slow down we diminish the risk of making mistakes. If we slow down, we invite other experts from different disciplines to review our thoughts, to think and to add value to our endeavors. Collective thinking is sumptuous and so mattering when it comes to these type of articles. In corporate strategy what someone misses, another one gets it. Regardless if the strategists belong to any of the top consulting houses as Bain, PWC, Mckinsey or BCG or if we work at Eleonora Escalante Strategy. And it is so important to consider multiple views and point of landscapes when it comes to data gathering.  Remember, no one has the absolute truth. No one, not even machines which are fed by humans.

Culture Areas Northamerican indians

Culture areas of North American Indians. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

Nevertheless, I did a mistake in my last publication. Yes. I missed one key culture which worked with metals. When I was gathering data about the North American settlements or cultures, I focused only on the timeline period: Between 3,000 BCE to 1,000 BCE. Guess what? I missed one important culture in North America which has left copper vestiges previous to this timeline period.  This culture is grouped under a different classification of history in comparison to the Old World timeline. The organization of the New World timeline is completely different. And the lack of standardization of the classification between both areas (Old World and New World)  did not help me either. Thus, as an observation, I believe the classification of the Old World History using Copper, Bronze or Iron Age is out of correspondence or conformity with the classification of the New World History I chose to post this saga. Possibly it was not a good idea for me to use the variable “Technology Usage of a Specific Material” Age. And simply it is much better to use the variable range of “years BCE or AD”.

According to Thomas Pleger, there is archaeological evidence that Native North American societies, known as Old Copper Complex Settlements,  knew and were heavily involved in the utilization for weaponry and tools. Nevertheless, it is still on the discussion the evidence of smelting or alloying because archaeologists have assumed that objects were cold-worked into shape. Artifacts from these sites have been dated from 4000 to 1000 BCE. Guess how these settlements are called? Eastern Archaic People from North America  (Native America). 

Copper-old cooper complex North America

Native copper nugget from glacial drift, Ontonagon County, Michigan. An example of the raw material worked by the people of the Old Copper Complex. Source: Rob Lavinsky, – CC-BY-SA-3.0

Eastern Archaic people resided in what are now the states of Michigan and Wisconsin. “And they began to work copper, which can be found in large nodules there. Using cold-hammer techniques, they created a variety of distinctive tools and art forms. Their aptly named Old Copper culture appeared about 3000 BCE and lasted approximately 2,000 years. Its tools and weapons, particularly its adzes, gouges, and axes, clearly indicate an adaptation to the forest environment” (Source: Enc. Britannica). These objects were traded with other North American Indian tribes situated in other regions. “Trade between the eastern and western areas has been recognized; in addition, copper implements have been found as far south as Louisiana and Florida and southeastern marine shells have been found in the upper Mississippi–Great Lakes area. This suggests that transportation by canoe was known to Eastern Archaic communities”.

Other locations where archaeologists have found copper artifacts are dated from posterior times to 1,000 BCE, and we will discuss them later.

Next post is about the South American Tribes Vestiges dated from 3,000 BCE to 1,000 BCE. We will try to infer their corporate strategy. Have a beautiful Sunday!

Thank you.bee

Source References utilized to write this article:

Disclaimer: All the presentation slides shown on this blog are prepared by Eleonora Escalante MBA-MEng. Nevertheless, all the pictures or videos shown on this blog are not mine.  I do not own any of the lovely photos or images posted unless otherwise stated. 





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